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Key-Wound 30-hour, c1668-1670. A very rare long pendulum clock with its original, early - fully developed original anchor escapement. It is highly interesting and dates within about twelve years from the invention of the anchor escapement in 1658.  Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

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An 

Early Key -Wound 

30-hour Pendulum Clock

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As a collector of early provincial 30-hour pendulum clocks with anchor escapement -  including longcase, hooded, and wall clocks -  I am always searching to find  examples dating from the 1680s and early 1690s - a period which is generally (not including London) regarded as being at the very start of domestic clockmaking in many parts of rural England. However, I have always been hopeful that one day I would come across an early 30-hour example that dates closer to the  beginnings of their prototype existence of the 1660s. This article is about one such exceedingly rare, exciting, and original 30-hour that I have been fortunate enough to photograph and illustrate on this website. The clock is anonymous and was probably made in or near London. It is highly interesting and has survived in a superb original condition throughout and dates within about ten to twelve years from the invention of the anchor escapement in 1658. It is a Key-Wound 30-hour long pendulum clock with its original, early - fully developed original anchor escapement.

The anonymous, 9.75 inch square brass dial is most beautifully engraved with an All-Over tulip flower theme which includes spreading to each of the four corners. The iron hands also have a tulip theme including a flower on the stem of the minute hand.

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Above. Showing the beautifully All-Over engraved 9.75 inch brass dial of the early anonymous Key-Wound 30-hour with narrow chapter ring. Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

Tulips formed the theme of the engraved dials of many, if not most, English lantern clocks of the mid to late 1600s but are exceptionally uncommon during this same period on square dials of other kinds of clocks (namely longcase clocks, hooded clocks or bracket clocks). Clocks other than lantern which have this tulip-based engraving filling the dial centre and the dial corners are very few in number. Brian Loomes in one of his article entitled ‘A Tulip-dial Clock of the Seventeenth Century' states that surviving known examples all date between 1664 and 1680 and to support this theory I have seen a table clock c1660-1664 by John Hilderson with an all-over engraved tulip theme dial. And recently an important early ebony spring pendulum timepiece with alarm by Edward East, c1660 that sold at auction - also had an all-over engraved tulip theme dial.

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Above. Showing a close-up of the beautiful dial centre. The flowers around the winding-holes were engraved after the winding holes were cut. Note the tulip theme hands with a flower on the minute hand.  Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

Below. Showing a close-up of the square date calandar with small tulip flowers engraved to the square corners Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

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Below. Showing a close-up of one of the beautifully engraved tulip flower corners. Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

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Below. A close-up of the superb and original iron hands with tulip flower design - which match the fabulous tulip dial. Note the carved out tulip on the minute hand. Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

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The massive and heavily built plated movement with its original anchor escapement is wonderfully original throughout and has four large ringed and knopped pillars which are latched at the front. Most interestingly it has four-wheel trains like an 8-day, but with some of the pinions substituted by brass wheels with larger counts. This reduces the duration to make it 30-hr (or at least shorter than 8-day). Why this should have been done like this is a mystery but totally original arrangement and possibly experimental from a clockmaker who was probably more used to making balance wheel lantern clocks. The lovely tapered iron wheel arbours are mostly without collets and are direct to the wheels. There are two massive tapered iron arbours that have iron collets, but these are integral and are part of the iron arbour itself - just like lantern clocks of the 1650s and 1660s. There is one concave brass collet, but this mixture of iron and brass collets is original and is also found on other clocks from this period. This same original feature can be seen on another early Key-Wound 30-hour by Jonathan Chambers, c1668 illustrated in English 30 Hour Clocks by Darken &Hooper pages 43-47.

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Above Showing a front side view of the movement with the dial removed. Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

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Above Showing another front side view of the movement  but from the opposite side. Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

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Above Showing the front of the movement with the dial removed. Note the front is latched and the rear of movement is pinned. Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

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Above Showing an overhead view of the massive and heavily built plated movement with lovely tapered iron wheel arbours. There are two massive tapered iron arbours that have iron collets, but these are integral and are part of the iron arbour itself - just like lantern clocks of the 1650s and 1660s. Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

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Above Showing another overhead view of the massive movement. The clock retains its original anchor escapement . Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

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Above Showing the rear of the early Key-Wound movement. Note the tall plates. Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

Architectural Case

The 

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Above. Showing the early Key-Wound clock housed in its architectural ebonised fruitwood case which has a rising hood with spoon and catch. The case is fashioned with ebonised pear wood veneers onto a pine carcass. Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

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Above. Showing a close-up of the trunk door brass escutcheon. Below. Inside the door there are blacksmith iron hinges and an iron lock. Private collection, Photographed by Lee Borrett.

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The oak seat board supports two rectangular movement blocks in which the clock sits.

The case stands approximately 6ft 5 inches high.

The clock is housed in an architectural ebonised fruitwood case which has a rising hood with spoon and catch. The case is fashioned with ebonised pear wood veneers onto a  pine carcass. The panelled trunk door has blacksmith iron hinges, iron lock and brass escutcheon. The oak seat board supports two rectangular movement blocks in which the clock sits. It stands approximately 6ft 5 inches high.

Provenance

This anonymous early key-wound 30-hour clock has a superb known provenance that we can trace back to at least 100 years. Until recently it had been in the private collection of John Carlton-Smith for over sixty years, who purchased the clock in 1960 from another highly respected private collector. Made between around c1668-1670, this clock is an historically important survivor because it was made within about ten to twelve years from the invention of the anchor escapement in 1658.

 

The clock was possibly made by London lantern clockmaker who had just started to make his first longcase clocks. However, this is only assumption and the mystery of who made it over 350 years ago just adds to the excitement!

Acknoweledgements

I would like to thank John Carlton-Smith who made it possible for me to acquire this clock which had been in his own private collection since 1960.

 

I would like to thank Brian Loomes for allowing me to use any relevant previously published articles written by him - which I have used for my own article above.

 

I would like to thank John Robey for his help with explaining the unusual and exceptionally interesting movement arrangement.

And finally, I would also like to thank my clock friends including Toby, Thomas and George who over the years have scoured the length and breadth of the country, helping me to locate and acquire such fascinating early clocks to illustrate on this website.

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