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Fecit, c1662

James Brundle 

The fine early lantern clock illustrated here, was made within a year or two after the Restoration of King Charles II in 1660 and is signed on the fret ‘James Brundle Fecit’ without a place name. Brundle, who is a previously unrecorded maker was probably working in or around the London area. The chapter ring half-hour markers are the matchstick type with single flower and behind the dial - the star-wheel has a 'matchstick man' casting feature which is typical of many lantern clocks made in London during this period. The dial centre is all-over engraved with a wonderfully interesting tulip flower design and the clock, which retains its original single iron hand stands 15 inches tall.

Charles II, 1660

1630-1685

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Portrait of King Charles II by John Michael Wright, oil on canvas, c.1671-76.  Image by Alamy.com

In 1660, in what is known as the English Restoration, General George Monck met with Charles and arranged to restore him in exchange for a promise of amnesty and religious toleration for his former enemies. On May 25th 1660 and under invitation by leaders of the English Commonwealth, Charles II, the exiled king of England, landed at Dover, England. Four days later on May 29th he arrived in London in triumph. It was his 30th birthday, and London rejoiced at his arrival to assume the thone and mark the beginning of the English Restoration, ending 11 years of military rule.

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May 29th 1660, King Charles II of England arrives in London and assumes the throne, marking the beginning of the English Restoration.  Image by Alamy.com

In the first year of the Restoration, Oliver Cromwell was posthumously convicted of treason and his body disinterred from its tomb in Westminster Abbey and hanged from the gallows at Tyburn.

The Brundle Clock

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Above. A Fine early lantern clock by James Brundle c1662. Photograph by Lee Borrett.

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Above. Another view of the James Brundle lantern clock c1662.  Photograph by Lee Borrett

Below. Showing the beautifully engraved dial centre of the James Brundle lantern. The iron hand is original.  Photograph by Lee Borrett.

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Below. Close-up of James Brundle's signature. Note the matchstick style single flower half-hour markers.  Photograph by Lee Borrett.

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Below. Showing the James Brundle star-wheel matchstick man casting and typical of many London lantern clocks of this period.

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On close inspection-apart from the clock going through a customary conversion from balance wheel control to long pendulum and then being re-converted back to balance at some point in its past it is in a very original condition including retaining its original wheel work, tapered arbours, pinions and it's separate winding pulley's and iron clickers

Below. Showing a left-hand view of the James Brundle movement. Note the fancily shaped iron hammer stop and lovely tapered arbours.  Photograph by Lee Borrett.

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Below. Showing a right-right hand view of the James Brundle movement. Note the two original seperate rope pulley's and iron clickers are retained.  Original pinions. Photograph by Lee Borrett.

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Below. Showing the top plate of the James Brundle lantern with the bell removed. The two spare holes are thought to have been used to regulate the balance wheel in the 17th century by inserting the long pin (currently in the third middle hole) to the holes either side. Photograph by Lee Borrett.

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Below. Showig a side angle view of the James Brundle lantern clock.  Photograph by Lee Borrett.

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Below. A rear view of the James Brundle Lantern c1660.  Photograph by Lee Borrett.

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Below. Showing the James Brundle lantern clock hanging from the wall.  Photograph by Lee Borrett.

Summary

In summary this fine clock is full of charm and character and is a rare survivor. It appears to be James Brundle’s only known lantern clock to date but hopefully showing it here will help bring other examples to light. Like so many clocks of this age it is shrouded in a wonderfully historical background. When James Brundle made this lantern clock it was only a year or two after the Restoration of King Charles II in 1660. This is likely to have been a less stressful time in Brundle's life as like every one else he had just survived through the hardships and brutal period of the English Civil War. However, these happier times would not last long as only a few years later James Brundle would perhaps bear witness to the horrific events of the Great Plague that would wipe out much of the population in London during 1665 and 1666. Then (if he survived) the terrible destruction of thousands of London buildings which left many people stranded and homeless caused by the Great Fire on the 2nd September of 1666.

 

I find it fascinating that having just recently rejoiced the return of their King - the first owners of this clock who in the dark evenings would have held a candlelight to its beautiful tulip dial to look at where the iron hand was pointing - were completely unaware about the terrible events that would soon be coming their way!

The Great Plague 

The Great Plague was London’s last major outbreak of the plague, a bacterial infection caused by Yersinia pestis. The outbreak began in the late winter or early spring of 1665. By the time King Charles II fled the city in July, the plague was killing about a thousand people a week. The death rate peaked in September when 7,165 people died in one week.

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 PLAGUE OF LONDON, 1665. /nLord, have mercy on London. Contemporary English woodcut on the Great Plague of 1665. Image by Alamy.com

Officially, the city recorded 68,596 deaths from the Great Plague, and the true death toll may have exceeded 100,000. Most of these deaths were from bubonic plague, a form of plague spread through fleas on small mammals. In London, the major carriers were rats. (In the United States, where plague has likely existed since a 1900 outbreak in San Francisco, squirrels and prairie dogs can and do transmit plague to humans.) After peaking in September 1665, the city’s plague deaths began to taper off that winter. In February 1666, King Charles II returned to London, signaling a belief that the city had become “reasonably safe,”

The Great Fire of 

 London 1666

London had already burned several times in its history, most notably in 1212, but in September 1666 the conditions were present for an inferno of epic proportions. The city of 500,000 people was a tinderbox of cramped streets and timber-frame structures, many of them built with flammable pitch and tar. Stables filled with hay and straw were everywhere, and many cellars and warehouses were packed with combustible materials such as turpentine, lamp oil and coal. To make matters worse, a months-long drought had created a water shortage and left most of the wood buildings kindling-dry.

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Great Fire of London 1666.  Alamy.com

The fateful spark in the Great Fire came early on Sunday, September 2, at the Pudding Lane bakery of Thomas Farriner. Before heading to bed that night, Farriner had made a final inspection of his bakery and raked the spent coals in his ovens, which were still warm from a day of making ship’s biscuit for King Charles II’s navy. He would later swear that the ovens were extinguished when he retired to his upstairs apartment, but it seems that a smoldering ember escaped and started a fire. Whatever the cause, at around 1 a.m., Farriner awoke to find his house in flames. The baker and his daughter only survived by exiting an upstairs window and crawling on a gutter to a neighbor’s house. His manservant also escaped, but another servant, a young woman, perished in the smoke and flames. 

All told, the Great Fire had destroyed 13,200 buildings and left an estimated 100,000 people homeless. Over 400 acres of the city had burned, leaving behind a desert of charred stone and smoldering wood beams. “London was, but is no more,” Evelyn lamented. Compared to the scale of the destruction, the supposed death toll was miniscule. Official reports listed as few as four people killed, but many modern researchers believe the number failed to include those whose bodies were cremated by the flames. “The true death toll of the Great Fire of London is not four or six or eight,” author Neil Hanson has argued, “it is several hundred and quite possibly several thousand times that number.”

Acknoweledgements

The above information about:- The Restoration of King Charles II, The Great Plague of 1665 and The Great Fire of London1666 was taken from the  website History.com

References

Article Title

The English Restoration begins, The Great Plague of 1665, The Great Fire of London 1666.

Author

History.com Editors

https://www.history.com

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